What is Testosterone? (2024 Updated)


What Is Testosterone?

Testosterone, often referred to as the “male hormone” is a crucial steroid hormone. Although it is primarily found in men, women also have lower amounts of testosterone. This hormone serves a myriad of essential functions that can impact various aspects of your health and development.

Men, compared to women have higher testosterone levels in their bodies, which are formed in various locations. For instance, it is made in the ovaries in women while in the testes in men.

This article will cover a comprehensive overview of testosterone, its sources, benefits, regulation, and various other factors that influence its levels.

Testosterone Sources: How Testosterone Is Produced?

Testosterone is primarily produced in the testes of men and the ovaries of women. Moreover, smaller amounts of T are synthesized in the adrenal glands of both sexes.

In men, approximately 95% of circulatory testosterone production occurs in the Leydig cells within the gonads or testes, while the remaining 5% comes from the adrenal glands.

Testosterone is produced in the ovaries and adrenal glands in women.

Let’s Understand The Step-By-Step Process Of Testosterone Production

We have mentioned below the primary steps that lead to the formation of testosterone in

Step #1: A region in the brain, the hypothalamus, releases a hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that plays a vital role in regulating hormone production.

Step #2: In response to GnRH signals, the pituitary gland, secretes two essential gonadotropin hormones: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Step #3: These two hormones reach the gonads (testes and ovaries) via the bloodstream.

Step #4: Luteinizing hormone stimulates Leydig cells in males that are located in the testes. In response to LH, these cells secrete and produce testosterone.

Step #5: Once produced, testosterone is released into the bloodstream. Most of the testosterone becomes inactive as it binds to carrier proteins, either SHBG or albumin for transportation throughout the body.

However, a small fraction of it remains unbound, and this bioactive form of hormone promotes mood, libido, metabolism, muscle growth, and energy regulation.

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What Is The Function Of Testosterone In Men And Women?

Testosterone plays a vital role in many functions in both the male and female body. For instance, this hormone helps a male fetus develop internal and external organs. Let’s discuss all the essential functions in brief:

Sexual Development and Reproduction

Testosterone is instrumental in male sexual development. Starting from the embryonic stage, this hormone promotes the formation of male genitalia.

During puberty, testosterone triggers the development of secondary sexual characteristics in males, such as:

  • deepening of the voice,
  • growth of facial and body hair, and
  • increased muscle mass.

On the other hand, in females, testosterone contributes to the growth of pubic and underarm hair, apart from supporting their sex drive and overall sexual health.

Muscle Mass and Bone Density

The anabolic effects of Testosterone play a vital role in promoting muscle growth and enhancing protein synthesis. This means it can help maintain the mass, strength, and performance of the muscles.

It is specifically essential for those men and women who engage in strength training or sports activities.

Additionally, testosterone aids in preserving bone density. By maintaining optimal bone density, testosterone may prevent osteoporosis and maintain bone health as individuals age.

Fat Distribution and Body Composition

Testosterone influences fat distribution in both sexes. This differentiation in fat distribution between men and women is largely attributed to sex hormone variations.

This hormone leads to an android or apple-shaped body in men, where fat accumulates around the waist and abdomen.

In contrast, women tend to have a gynoid or pear-shaped body, with fat gathering around the hips and thighs.

Energy and Vitality

Testosterone, according to research, contributes to overall energy levels and vitality in both men and women. As a result, it promotes a sense of well-being and motivation.

Low testosterone levels, especially in men, may lead to feelings of fatigue, reduced energy, and decreased motivation.

Mood and Cognitive Function

Another important function of testosterone is regulating cognitive function and emotional well-being in both men and women. Research suggests that optimal levels of testosterone may influence an individual’s mood, mental focus, concentration, and aggression.

However, more clinical studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of testosterone on cognition and emotions.

Cardiovascular Health

Testosterone has also been linked to cardiovascular health. It is claimed that this steroid hormone may help improve blood flow and maintain healthy blood vessels. This means it may support proper cardiovascular health and reduce the risk of various chronic diseases.

Red Blood Cell Production

Testosterone has also been related to stimulating the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. The optimal production of RBC is essential for oxygen transport in the body.

Libido and Sexual Function

Testosterone is a key factor in sex drive and sexual function in both men and women. An adequate level of testosterone can contribute to a healthy libido and sexual performance.

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Optimal Levels Of Testosterone In Both Sexes

The levels of testosterone in males and females may vary depending on various factors such as age, medical conditions, diet, etc. It is important to note that “optimal levels” of testosterone differ for different age groups as it may naturally decline with age.

For Males:

Total Testosterone: In Adults (18-69 years), the optimal testosterone level is 300-1000 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter).

Free Testosterone: Typically around 1-2% of the total testosterone production.

For Females:

Total Testosterone In Pre-Menopausal Women: The optimal testosterone level is 15-70 ng/dL.

Total Testosterone In Post-Menopausal Women: It is around 07-40 ng/dL.

Pros And Cons Of Testosterone

In this section, we will be discussing the pros and cons of testosterone in both males and females.

The advantages of testosterone are dependent on the factor that you have optimal levels of T, while, the disadvantages are associated with either low or high levels of testosterone.

Testosterone Pros

  • Supports male sexual characteristics during puberty.
  • Promotes reproductive health in both genders.
  • Enhances muscle growth and strength, especially in men.
  • Maintains bone density and reduces the risk of osteoporosis.
  • Boosts energy levels and supports overall well-being.
  • May positively influence mood and reduce anxiety.
  • May improve blood flow and maintain healthy blood vessels.
  • Vital for healthy sex drive and sexual performance.
  • May boost cognitive function, according to some evidence.
  • Stimulates red blood cell production, essential for oxygen transport.

Testosterone Cons

  • High levels of T may be linked to increased cardiovascular risks.
  • May cause increased sebum production and skin problems in both sexes.
  • May contribute to male pattern baldness in some cases.
  • Could exacerbate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or impact prostate tumors.
  • High testosterone levels may lead to aggression and mood swings.
  • Low levels of T can cause reduced sex drive, shrinking testicles, and erectile dysfunction in men.
  • High levels can lead to obesity.
  • Increased muscle mass, enlarged clitoris, deepening of voice, infertility in women having higher levels of testosterone.

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Symptoms Of Low Testosterone In Males And Females

Symptoms of low testosterone, also known as hypogonadism, can manifest differently in males and females due to their different hormonal balances.

Low Testosterone In Males Can Lead To:

  • Reduced sex drive or lack of interest in sexual activity.
  • Erectile dysfunction.
  • Persistent tiredness or lack of energy.
  • Loss of muscle mass.
  • Experiencing weight gain, particularly around the abdomen.
  • Increased irritability or mood swings
  • Decreased bone density.
  • Loss of body hair.
  • Development of “male boobs”.

Symptoms of Low Testosterone in Females

  • Low sex drive.
  • Weakness and lack of energy.
  • Mood swings.
  • Thinning hair on the scalp and reduced body hair.
  • Changes in the menstrual cycle or amenorrhea.
  • Decreased lubrication during sexual activity or vaginal dryness.

Testosterone In Males And Females

Symptoms Of Excess Testosterone In Males And Females

There are health problems that are associated with excess testosterone in both genders.

Excess Testosterone In Males Can Lead To:

  • Increased libido
  • Aggressiveness
  • Acne and oily skin
  • Male pattern baldness
  • Enlarged breast tissue

Symptoms of Excess Testosterone in Females

  • Irregular menstrual cycles
  • Excessive growth of hair on the face, abdomen chest, or back
  • Enlargement of the clitoris
  • Male pattern baldness

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What Causes Imbalance In Testosterone Levels In Men?

While there are many possible causes of an imbalance in testosterone levels in men, here’s a look at some of them:


Certain medical conditions can cause the body to produce too much or too little testosterone. For example, an overactive pituitary gland may lead to excessive production of hormones that signal the testes to produce more testosterone than normal.

This is known as hypogonadism or hyperandrogenism. On the other hand, damage to the testes or hypothalamus can lead to decreased production of testosterone (hypogonadism).

Kidney Failure, HIV/AIDS

Kidney failure is a medical condition that can lead to lowered testosterone levels in men. When the kidneys are not able to effectively filter out toxins from the bloodstream, the body’s hormones become unbalanced.

In particular, testosterone levels may be reduced due to decreased production of luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland, which is responsible for stimulating testosterone production. Additionally, chronic kidney disease can cause inflammation and oxidative stress that further reduces testosterone levels.

HIV/AIDS is another health condition that can lead to low testosterone levels in men. HIV can damage the testes and reduce their ability to produce adequate amounts of testosterone.

The virus also decreases the secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland, which normally stimulate the testes to produce more testosterone. Furthermore, HIV-positive individuals often experience chronic inflammation that further reduces available testosterone in their bodies.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that mostly affects women of reproductive age. It is one of the most common endocrine disorders, affecting up to 10% of women worldwide. The primary symptom of PCOS is high levels of testosterone, which can lead to issues with fertility and physical appearance.

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown but it appears to be related to an imbalance in hormones, including testosterone and insulin.

This excess testosterone leads to a range of physical and psychological symptoms associated with PCOS.

These symptoms include irregular menstrual cycles, excessive hair growth on the face or body (hirsutism), acne or other skin problems, male-pattern baldness, obesity or difficulty losing weight, infertility, mood swings or depression, anxiety and fatigue.

Treatment for PCOS depends on the individual’s symptoms but there are a few common approaches that are often recommended by doctors. Birth control pills are sometimes prescribed to help regulate hormones and improve menstrual cycle regularity.

Anti-androgen medications may also be used to reduce excess hair growth or acne caused by hormone imbalances.

Age-Related Changes

Testosterone levels fluctuate throughout life. In males, testosterone production peaks during adolescence and early adulthood, supporting the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

Research suggests, after 30, testosterone levels gradually decline at an average rate of about 1% per year. This leads to various age-related changes like reduced muscle mass, energy levels, and libido.

Moreover, as men age their natural production of hormones will begin to decrease gradually over time leading to lower than normal testosterone levels which is known as ‘andropause’ or ‘male menopause’.

Additionally, low fertility rates due to aging issues such as poor semen quality can also contribute towards lower than normal hormone levels for older males.

Obesity and Fluctuating Blood Sugar

Obesity is a major contributing factor to low testosterone levels in men. Excessive body fat leads to increased production of the hormone estrogen, which increases aromatase activity. Aromatase is an enzyme that converts testosterone into estrogen, leading to a decrease in available testosterone.

It has been observed that obese men have lower-than-normal levels of total and free testosterone compared to their non-obese counterparts.

In addition, obesity can cause insulin resistance, which can result in irregular blood glucose levels. High blood sugar induces the release of hormones such as cortisol and glucagon, both of which interfere with the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH is released by the hypothalamus and stimulates the pituitary gland to produce LH and FSH, both of which are important for stimulating testosterone production in the testes.

Thus, high blood sugar can lead to decreased production of these hormones and ultimately decreased testosterone production as well.

Lifestyle Factors

A sedentary lifestyle can lead to low testosterone levels due to the lack of physical activity. This is because exercise helps to stimulate the release of hormones such as growth hormone and testosterone, which help to maintain healthy testosterone levels.

Smoking has been linked to lower testosterone levels due to the toxic chemicals found in cigarettes.

Alcohol consumption can also cause imbalances in testosterone levels due to its effect on the body’s hormones. In addition, alcohol consumption increases estrogen production, which further reduces available free-testosterone levels.

Mid-Life Crisis

Mid-Life Crisis can also be a factor in lower than normal testosterone levels for men past 40 years old or so, as it is associated with psychological stress and depression which both can contribute towards imbalance in hormones including Testosterone.

Stress and Other Psychological Factors

Stress and other psychological factors can have a significant impact on testosterone levels. Stress causes the release of cortisol, which suppresses the production of testosterone. Additionally, stress has been linked to increased aromatase activity, which further reduces available free-testosterone levels.

Other psychological factors such as depression and anxiety can also lead to imbalances in testosterone levels. Depression can cause a decrease in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from the pituitary gland, which normally stimulates the testes to produce more testosterone.

Anxiety has also been associated with decreased gonadotropin secretion from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

Nutritional Choices

Each individual has a different nutritional choice and it can have a major impact on their testosterone levels. For instance, a balanced diet rich in nutrients, particularly zinc and vitamin D, is crucial for maintaining healthy testosterone levels.

Additionally, it is scientifically proven that regular physical activity, especially resistance training, can boost testosterone levels. Even inadequate sleep or poor-quality sleep is known to negatively impact your testosterone production.

Apart from this, stress also negatively impacts your T levels. How? Science says chronic stress can lead to increased cortisol levels, which may affect testosterone synthesis.

Other Factors

Some medications, such as steroids and opioids, can suppress testosterone production. Additionally, excessive alcohol consumption and drug abuse can negatively impact hormone balance, regardless of gender.

Foods That Are Scientifically Proven To Increase Testosterone

Before we provide you with a list of food items that might support your testosterone levels, it is important to note that no single food can dramatically increase testosterone levels on its own. Therefore, it is imperative to have a balanced diet rich in testosterone-boosting nutrients.

Also, there is evidence that shows the different impacts of these food sources on testosterone in both men and women. Hence, we recommend conducting deep research or consulting your healthcare professional before making drastic dietary changes.

Cruciferous Vegetables

Cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts contain compounds such as Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) and Sulforaphane known to modulate hormones.

These compounds may help regulate estrogen levels in the body, which indirectly supports testosterone production.

Zinc-Rich Foods

Including foods rich in zinc such as oysters, beef, lamb, poultry, pumpkin seeds, and chickpeas, can contribute to increased testosterone synthesis.

Vitamin D Foods

Researchers have proven that Vitamin D deficiency can lead to lower testosterone levels. Add foods high in vitamin D like fatty fish (salmon, mackerel, tuna), fortified dairy products, and egg yolks to boost your T levels.

Healthy Fats

Science says monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are beneficial for hormone production. Foods like avocados, nuts, seeds, and olive oil are good sources of healthy fats that you can include in your diet.


Eggs are rich in cholesterol, which serves as a precursor for testosterone production. They also contain vitamin D and other essential nutrients.


Garlic has been proven in numerous studies to increase testosterone levels and boost sperm production. This is because it contains allicin, a compound that may have positive effects on testosterone levels.

Remember to consume only the recommended amount to avoid any side effects.

Antioxidant-Rich Foods

Foods rich in antioxidants like pomegranate, berries, etc. may support higher production of testosterone as they can reduce oxidative damage in the Leydig cells, indirectly boosting testosterone synthesis.

Lean Proteins

Include lean sources of protein like chicken, turkey, lean beef, and fish in your diet. Protein is essential for overall health, including hormone production.

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What Are The Various Treatment Options For Testosterone Replacement Therapy?

Here’s a look at some of the most popular treatment options for imbalances in testosterone levels:

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a common treatment option for testosterone imbalances. It involves the administration of synthetic hormones to supplement or replace the body’s natural testosterone levels. HRT can be administered through various methods, such as injections, gels, patches, or pellets. The dosage and method of administration will depend on the individual’s specific needs and preferences.

Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Testosterone Replacement Therapy, as the name suggests, is a medical treatment that involves supplementing the body with testosterone to restore levels to a normal range. It is primarily used to treat hypogonadism, a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone.

TRT can help alleviate symptoms associated with low testosterone and improve the overall quality of life.

Testosterone Boosting Medications

Certain medications can help stimulate testosterone production in the body. These medications are typically prescribed for individuals with low testosterone levels. Examples include clomiphene citrate and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

Natural Supplements

Many natural supplements claim to boost testosterone levels. These supplements often contain herbal ingredients like Tribulus Terrestris, fenugreek, D-aspartic acid, and ashwagandha.

While some individuals may experience benefits from these supplements, it is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before trying any new supplement.

Final Conclusion

Testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, plays a vital role in various physiological functions in both men and women. It impacts sexual development, muscle mass, bone health, and overall well-being.

Maintaining balanced testosterone levels is essential for optimal health. Any concerns require prompt consultation with a healthcare professional for proper guidance to restore the balance.

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